QUESTION: Black clubwomen creating institutions to shelter Black juvenile delinquents in 1800s?


You might be interested in the following two articles:

1. Evette Perry, T. and Davis-Maye, D. (2007) Bein' Womanish: Womanist Efforts in Child Saving During the Progressive Era: The Founding of Mt. Meigs Reformatory. Affilia, 22(2), 209- 219.


This article highlights the establishment by the Alabama Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs in 1907 of Alabama’s first and only reform school for African American youths, the Mt. Meigs Reformatory for Juvenile Negro Lawbreakers. Recognizing that the issues of African American women and the larger African American community were inextricably linked, courageous 19th-century African American women worked within a womanist ideological framework and harnessed their resources to develop purposeful agendas and creative responses to pressing problems in the African American community. Sorely neglected, this legacy begs for the attention of scholars who recognize the value of unearthing historical fragments to create enriched wholes.

You can get this article using the database SAGE Premier 2007 at any of the following NYPL branches/centers:

· Humanities and Social Sciences Library
· New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
· Science, Industry and Business Library
· Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture

2. Muth B., Gehring, T. et al. (n.d.) Janie Porter Barrett (1865-1948): Exemplary African American correctional educator. Retrieved online Monday, November 30, 2009 from:

Pages 8 and 9 of this article mention that in 1913, the Virginia State Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs opened a reformatory school for African-American girls in Virginia. During that time, Janie Porter Barrett was president of the federation.

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Black clubwomen creating institutions to shelter Black juvenile delinquents in 1800s?


Hi Vicki,

Here are a few things to get you started. The first link is to the publicly available article “Black Club Women and Child Welfare: Lessons for Modern Reform.”

This site provides information about the General Federation of Women's Clubs

The next item is a book, which is not available online but, is available though New York Public Library.

Southern Ladies, New Women: Race, Region, and Clubwomen in South Carolina 1890-1930 by Joan Marie Johnson.

These two articles are available through an article database called JSTOR, which is also available through NYPL. You can give these citations to a librarian and he or she should be able to get them for you.

“Black Feminism in Indiana, 1893-1933” by Erlene Stetson

“Welfare and the Role of Women: The Juvenile Court Movement” by Elizabeth J. Clapp

I saw several other similar articles, but most of what I found was not publicly available, though you should be able to access them through NYPL. If this is an option that appeals to you let me know and I can post some more.

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QUESTION: statistics for showing "how Baltimore is such a hard city on children"

question / pregunta: 

Submitted for a patron:
Question: do you have, or can you point in great radical dirrections, to gain statistics for showing "how Baltimore is such a hard city on children" - I want to compile a long list of statistics on child poverty, and issues that show rascism and classism filtering down. I KNOW its hard to live here, and hard for children, because I live, and have raised a child, here. (and I am writing an essay for the local indie media newspaper which the deadline already passed but there is still a little time left) but when I try to research statistics I am surprised how hard it is - how there is a diversity in numbers - how nothing is in one spot.

Has no one ever gathered a bunch of numbers for children living in Baltimore city?

I searched for a whole day and I should contact my local library but I am finding that statistics are harder and trickier than I thought - not used to working with them.

I would like to compile a page of numbers that speak for themselves, teh way Z magazine once did to show how the welfare reform propaganda was bullshit (this was a long time ago) and to illuminate the inequality. my essay talks about stuff but has no statistics to back it up - plus the editor said it would be great to do a whole side bar of this stuff.

how many children in sub-poverty
how the greatest reason to put a woman in poverty is to be a mother
how a disproportionate number of the poor is children
how baltimore has the greatest inequality in funding schools from the city to the suburbs (I actually Have this statistic)
how many children's parents are in prison

statistics to show racism and classism and all that.

I know this is really broad - a giant question. I am sorry, just having a hard time and surprised there are not more resources out there for stuff I thought would be easy to find (plus statistics need to be put into perspective. when there is debate even on how many kids drop out - from 30 to 68 percent (its definitely more on the 68 percent) and then they have the census which will say the city has one percent latinos but others more in the know say its twice as much as that.

so if there is any resources where someone has worked through these issues and put time into it and its more up to date - I wonder!

THANK YOU! Any help will be good - fast is best - but even if it comes past the deadline I will still use it in political work to organize to support parents and children.

Raising Rebels exhibition

The Librarians' Internet Index this week pointed to a nifty collection of book covers from Syracuse University Library.

Finding an incident cited by Overton V Bazzetta


The Google search: David Shepardson Prison Visitation Rules Criticized gets 46 hits, including TAKING A STEP BACK: THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT’S RULING IN Overton V Bazzetta. LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES LAW REVIEW Vol. 37:1831. Of this long review's 135 references, no. 2 is a Human Rights Watch report that claims to refer to the incident: NOWHERE TO HIDE: RETALIATION AGAINST WOMEN INCARCERATED IN MICHIGAN STATE PRISONS 1998)
This Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review may be the very article you saw – on page 10 it says: "In fact, what prompted "a wholesale review of [the MDOC’s] visitation policies" was the sexual assault of a 3-year old in 1994." But its reference #2 says not a word about the incident - unless it is ONLY in the first part the reference: "2. David Shepardson, Prison Visitation Rules Criticized; Rehabilitation Suffers Under State’s Security Concerns, Critics Say, DETROIT NEWS, June 17, 2001, at 1C". That news article would have to be ordered via Interlibrary Loan. Search Open Worldcat "detroit news" to see what libraries closest to you have it.

A Google search: "three year old" "saginaw correctional" gets 9 hits, including a UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN case "...Warden Luella Burke, of the Saginaw Correctional Facility, .... found to have molested a three year old girl who had been brought to the facility by her ..."

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